Google Maps-Karten anpassen: Benutzerdefinierte Markierungen

Plattform auswählen: Android iOS JavaScript

Überblick

In dieser Anleitung erfahren Sie, wie Sie das Symbol einer erweiterten Google Maps-Markierung in ein benutzerdefiniertes Bild ändern. Es ist von Vorteil, die Grundlagen zum Erstellen von Markierungen in dieser Anleitung zu kennen.

Auf der folgenden Beispielkarte sehen Sie, wie mit benutzerdefinierten Markierungen verschiedene Standorttypen angegeben werden.

Der folgende Abschnitt enthält den gesamten Code, den Sie zum Erstellen der Karte in dieser Anleitung benötigen.

TypeScript

let map: google.maps.Map;

async function initMap() {
  // Request needed libraries.
  const { Map } = await google.maps.importLibrary("maps") as google.maps.MapsLibrary;
  const { AdvancedMarkerElement, PinElement } = await google.maps.importLibrary("marker") as google.maps.MarkerLibrary;

  map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map") as HTMLElement, {
    center: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91722, 151.23064),
    zoom: 16,
    mapId: "DEMO_MAP_ID",
  });

  const iconBase =
    "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/";

  const icons: Record<string, { icon: string }> = {
    parking: {
      icon: iconBase + "parking_lot_maps.png",
    },
    library: {
      icon: iconBase + "library_maps.png",
    },
    info: {
      icon: iconBase + "info-i_maps.png",
    },
  };

  const features = [
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91721, 151.2263),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91539, 151.2282),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91747, 151.22912),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.9191, 151.22907),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91725, 151.23011),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91872, 151.23089),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91784, 151.23094),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91682, 151.23149),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.9179, 151.23463),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91666, 151.23468),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.916988, 151.23364),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91662347903106, 151.22879464019775),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.916365282092855, 151.22937399734496),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91665018901448, 151.2282474695587),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.919543720969806, 151.23112279762267),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91608037421864, 151.23288232673644),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91851096391805, 151.2344058214569),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91818154739766, 151.2346203981781),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91727341958453, 151.23348314155578),
      type: "library",
    },
  ];

  for (let i = 0; i < features.length; i++) {
    const iconImage = document.createElement("img");
    iconImage.src = icons[features[i].type].icon;
    const marker = new google.maps.marker.AdvancedMarkerElement({
      map,
      position: features[i].position,
      content: iconImage,
    })
  }
}

initMap();

JavaScript

let map;

async function initMap() {
  // Request needed libraries.
  const { Map } = await google.maps.importLibrary("maps");
  const { AdvancedMarkerElement, PinElement } = await google.maps.importLibrary(
    "marker",
  );

  map = new google.maps.Map(document.getElementById("map"), {
    center: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91722, 151.23064),
    zoom: 16,
    mapId: "DEMO_MAP_ID",
  });

  const iconBase =
    "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/";
  const icons = {
    parking: {
      icon: iconBase + "parking_lot_maps.png",
    },
    library: {
      icon: iconBase + "library_maps.png",
    },
    info: {
      icon: iconBase + "info-i_maps.png",
    },
  };
  const features = [
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91721, 151.2263),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91539, 151.2282),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91747, 151.22912),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.9191, 151.22907),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91725, 151.23011),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91872, 151.23089),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91784, 151.23094),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91682, 151.23149),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.9179, 151.23463),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91666, 151.23468),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.916988, 151.23364),
      type: "info",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91662347903106, 151.22879464019775),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.916365282092855, 151.22937399734496),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91665018901448, 151.2282474695587),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.919543720969806, 151.23112279762267),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91608037421864, 151.23288232673644),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91851096391805, 151.2344058214569),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91818154739766, 151.2346203981781),
      type: "parking",
    },
    {
      position: new google.maps.LatLng(-33.91727341958453, 151.23348314155578),
      type: "library",
    },
  ];

  for (let i = 0; i < features.length; i++) {
    const iconImage = document.createElement("img");

    iconImage.src = icons[features[i].type].icon;

    const marker = new google.maps.marker.AdvancedMarkerElement({
      map,
      position: features[i].position,
      content: iconImage,
    });
  }
}

initMap();

CSS

/* 
 * Always set the map height explicitly to define the size of the div element
 * that contains the map. 
 */
#map {
  height: 100%;
}

/* 
 * Optional: Makes the sample page fill the window. 
 */
html,
body {
  height: 100%;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

HTML

<html>
  <head>
    <title>Custom Markers</title>
    <script src="https://polyfill.io/v3/polyfill.min.js?features=default"></script>

    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="./style.css" />
    <script type="module" src="./index.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <div id="map"></div>

    <!-- prettier-ignore -->
    <script>(g=>{var h,a,k,p="The Google Maps JavaScript API",c="google",l="importLibrary",q="__ib__",m=document,b=window;b=b[c]||(b[c]={});var d=b.maps||(b.maps={}),r=new Set,e=new URLSearchParams,u=()=>h||(h=new Promise(async(f,n)=>{await (a=m.createElement("script"));e.set("libraries",[...r]+"");for(k in g)e.set(k.replace(/[A-Z]/g,t=>"_"+t[0].toLowerCase()),g[k]);e.set("callback",c+".maps."+q);a.src=`https://maps.${c}apis.com/maps/api/js?`+e;d[q]=f;a.onerror=()=>h=n(Error(p+" could not load."));a.nonce=m.querySelector("script[nonce]")?.nonce||"";m.head.append(a)}));d[l]?console.warn(p+" only loads once. Ignoring:",g):d[l]=(f,...n)=>r.add(f)&&u().then(()=>d[l](f,...n))})
        ({key: "AIzaSyB41DRUbKWJHPxaFjMAwdrzWzbVKartNGg", v: "weekly"});</script>
  </body>
</html>

Testbeispiel

Kartenmarkierung anpassen

Sie können das standardmäßige rote Markierungssymbol (Rotes Standardmarkierungssymbol) durch ein benutzerdefiniertes Bild Ihrer Wahl ersetzen. Das folgende Beispiel zeigt, wie das Standardsymbol durch eine benutzerdefinierte PNG-Datei ersetzt wird.

// A marker with a with a URL pointing to a PNG.
const beachFlagImg = document.createElement("img");

beachFlagImg.src =
  "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/beachflag.png";

const beachFlagMarkerView = new AdvancedMarkerElement({
  map,
  position: { lat: 37.434, lng: -122.082 },
  content: beachFlagImg,
  title: "A marker using a custom PNG Image",
});

Weitere Möglichkeiten zum Erstellen von Markierungen mit Grafiken

Markierungen nach Kartenelementen anpassen

Jeder POI in der Liste der Features des Campus hat ein type-Attribut. Im folgenden Codebeispiel werden die Typen parking, library und info definiert. Sie können das Markierungssymbol je nach dem type, den Sie für das Kartenelement festlegen, anpassen.

const iconBase =
  "https://developers.google.com/maps/documentation/javascript/examples/full/images/";

const icons: Record<string, { icon: string }> = {
  parking: {
    icon: iconBase + "parking_lot_maps.png",
  },
  library: {
    icon: iconBase + "library_maps.png",
  },
  info: {
    icon: iconBase + "info-i_maps.png",
  },
};

function addMarker(feature) {
  const iconImage = document.createElement("img");
  iconImage.src = icons[feature.type].icon;
  const marker = new google.maps.marker.AdvancedMarkerElement({
    map,
    position: feature.position,
    content: iconImage,
  })
}

addMarker(features[0]);