使用 Gmail 和 Google 表格创建邮件合并

使用集合让一切井井有条 根据您的偏好保存内容并对其进行分类。

编码级别:初学者
时长:10 分钟
项目类型:包含自定义菜单的自动化作业

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目标

  • 了解该解决方案的作用。
  • 了解 Apps 脚本服务在该解决方案中的作用。
  • 设置脚本。
  • 运行脚本。

关于此解决方案

使用 Google 表格中的数据自动填充电子邮件模板。这些电子邮件从您的 Gmail 帐号发出,以便您可以回复收件人的回复。

重要提示:此邮件合并示例需遵循 Google 服务的配额中所述的电子邮件限制。

邮件合并示例

运作方式

您可以使用与 Google 表格中的电子表格对应的占位符来创建 Gmail 草稿模板。工作表中的每个列标题都代表一个占位符标记。该脚本会将电子表格中每个占位符的信息发送到电子邮件草稿中相应占位符标记的位置。

Apps 脚本服务

此解决方案使用以下服务:

前提条件

如需使用此示例,您需要满足以下前提条件:

  • Google 帐号(Google Workspace 帐号可能需要管理员批准)。
  • 能够访问互联网的网络浏览器。

设置脚本

创建 Apps 脚本项目

  1. 点击以下按钮即可创建 Gmail/Sheets Mail Merge 电子表格副本。 此解决方案的 Apps 脚本项目已附加到电子表格。
    制作副本
  2. 在复制的电子表格中,使用要在邮件合并中使用的电子邮件地址更新收件人列。
  3. (可选)添加、修改或移除列,以自定义要在电子邮件模板中包含的数据。

如果您更改 RECIPIENTEmail Sent 列的名称,则必须更新 Apps 脚本项目中的相应代码。您可以点击扩展程序 > Apps 脚本,从电子表格中打开 Apps 脚本项目。

创建电子邮件模板

  1. 在您的 Gmail 帐号中,创建电子邮件草稿。如需在电子邮件中包含电子表格中的数据,请使用与用大括号括起来的列名称对应的占位符,例如 {{First name}}
    • 如果您要设置电子邮件中文本的格式,还必须设置占位符括号的格式。
    • 占位符区分大小写,且必须与列标题完全匹配。
  2. 复制电子邮件草稿的主题行。

运行脚本

  1. 在电子表格中,点击邮件合并 > 发送电子邮件。您可能需要刷新页面,以显示此自定义菜单。
  2. 当系统提示时,为该脚本授权。 如果 OAuth 同意屏幕显示此应用未经过验证警告,请依次选择高级 > 转到 {Project Name}(不安全)

  3. 再次点击邮件合并 > 发送电子邮件

  4. 粘贴电子邮件模板主题行,然后点击确定

如果您为工作表应用了过滤条件,脚本仍会向已过滤的参与者发送电子邮件,但不会添加时间戳。

查看代码

如需查看此解决方案的 Apps 脚本代码,请点击下面的查看源代码

查看源代码

代码.gs

solutions/automations/mail-merge/Code.js
// To learn how to use this script, refer to the documentation:
// https://developers.google.com/apps-script/samples/automations/mail-merge

/*
Copyright 2022 Martin Hawksey

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
You may obtain a copy of the License at

    https://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
*/

/**
 * @OnlyCurrentDoc
*/

/**
 * Change these to match the column names you are using for email 
 * recipient addresses and email sent column.
*/
const RECIPIENT_COL  = "Recipient";
const EMAIL_SENT_COL = "Email Sent";

/** 
 * Creates the menu item "Mail Merge" for user to run scripts on drop-down.
 */
function onOpen() {
  const ui = SpreadsheetApp.getUi();
  ui.createMenu('Mail Merge')
      .addItem('Send Emails', 'sendEmails')
      .addToUi();
}

/**
 * Sends emails from sheet data.
 * @param {string} subjectLine (optional) for the email draft message
 * @param {Sheet} sheet to read data from
*/
function sendEmails(subjectLine, sheet=SpreadsheetApp.getActiveSheet()) {
  // option to skip browser prompt if you want to use this code in other projects
  if (!subjectLine){
    subjectLine = Browser.inputBox("Mail Merge", 
                                      "Type or copy/paste the subject line of the Gmail " +
                                      "draft message you would like to mail merge with:",
                                      Browser.Buttons.OK_CANCEL);

    if (subjectLine === "cancel" || subjectLine == ""){ 
    // If no subject line, finishes up
    return;
    }
  }

  // Gets the draft Gmail message to use as a template
  const emailTemplate = getGmailTemplateFromDrafts_(subjectLine);

  // Gets the data from the passed sheet
  const dataRange = sheet.getDataRange();
  // Fetches displayed values for each row in the Range HT Andrew Roberts 
  // https://mashe.hawksey.info/2020/04/a-bulk-email-mail-merge-with-gmail-and-google-sheets-solution-evolution-using-v8/#comment-187490
  // @see https://developers.google.com/apps-script/reference/spreadsheet/range#getdisplayvalues
  const data = dataRange.getDisplayValues();

  // Assumes row 1 contains our column headings
  const heads = data.shift(); 

  // Gets the index of the column named 'Email Status' (Assumes header names are unique)
  // @see http://ramblings.mcpher.com/Home/excelquirks/gooscript/arrayfunctions
  const emailSentColIdx = heads.indexOf(EMAIL_SENT_COL);

  // Converts 2d array into an object array
  // See https://stackoverflow.com/a/22917499/1027723
  // For a pretty version, see https://mashe.hawksey.info/?p=17869/#comment-184945
  const obj = data.map(r => (heads.reduce((o, k, i) => (o[k] = r[i] || '', o), {})));

  // Creates an array to record sent emails
  const out = [];

  // Loops through all the rows of data
  obj.forEach(function(row, rowIdx){
    // Only sends emails if email_sent cell is blank and not hidden by a filter
    if (row[EMAIL_SENT_COL] == ''){
      try {
        const msgObj = fillInTemplateFromObject_(emailTemplate.message, row);

        // See https://developers.google.com/apps-script/reference/gmail/gmail-app#sendEmail(String,String,String,Object)
        // If you need to send emails with unicode/emoji characters change GmailApp for MailApp
        // Uncomment advanced parameters as needed (see docs for limitations)
        GmailApp.sendEmail(row[RECIPIENT_COL], msgObj.subject, msgObj.text, {
          htmlBody: msgObj.html,
          // bcc: 'a.bbc@email.com',
          // cc: 'a.cc@email.com',
          // from: 'an.alias@email.com',
          // name: 'name of the sender',
          // replyTo: 'a.reply@email.com',
          // noReply: true, // if the email should be sent from a generic no-reply email address (not available to gmail.com users)
          attachments: emailTemplate.attachments,
          inlineImages: emailTemplate.inlineImages
        });
        // Edits cell to record email sent date
        out.push([new Date()]);
      } catch(e) {
        // modify cell to record error
        out.push([e.message]);
      }
    } else {
      out.push([row[EMAIL_SENT_COL]]);
    }
  });

  // Updates the sheet with new data
  sheet.getRange(2, emailSentColIdx+1, out.length).setValues(out);

  /**
   * Get a Gmail draft message by matching the subject line.
   * @param {string} subject_line to search for draft message
   * @return {object} containing the subject, plain and html message body and attachments
  */
  function getGmailTemplateFromDrafts_(subject_line){
    try {
      // get drafts
      const drafts = GmailApp.getDrafts();
      // filter the drafts that match subject line
      const draft = drafts.filter(subjectFilter_(subject_line))[0];
      // get the message object
      const msg = draft.getMessage();

      // Handles inline images and attachments so they can be included in the merge
      // Based on https://stackoverflow.com/a/65813881/1027723
      // Gets all attachments and inline image attachments
      const allInlineImages = draft.getMessage().getAttachments({includeInlineImages: true,includeAttachments:false});
      const attachments = draft.getMessage().getAttachments({includeInlineImages: false});
      const htmlBody = msg.getBody(); 

      // Creates an inline image object with the image name as key 
      // (can't rely on image index as array based on insert order)
      const img_obj = allInlineImages.reduce((obj, i) => (obj[i.getName()] = i, obj) ,{});

      //Regexp searches for all img string positions with cid
      const imgexp = RegExp('<img.*?src="cid:(.*?)".*?alt="(.*?)"[^\>]+>', 'g');
      const matches = [...htmlBody.matchAll(imgexp)];

      //Initiates the allInlineImages object
      const inlineImagesObj = {};
      // built an inlineImagesObj from inline image matches
      matches.forEach(match => inlineImagesObj[match[1]] = img_obj[match[2]]);

      return {message: {subject: subject_line, text: msg.getPlainBody(), html:htmlBody}, 
              attachments: attachments, inlineImages: inlineImagesObj };
    } catch(e) {
      throw new Error("Oops - can't find Gmail draft");
    }

    /**
     * Filter draft objects with the matching subject linemessage by matching the subject line.
     * @param {string} subject_line to search for draft message
     * @return {object} GmailDraft object
    */
    function subjectFilter_(subject_line){
      return function(element) {
        if (element.getMessage().getSubject() === subject_line) {
          return element;
        }
      }
    }
  }

  /**
   * Fill template string with data object
   * @see https://stackoverflow.com/a/378000/1027723
   * @param {string} template string containing {{}} markers which are replaced with data
   * @param {object} data object used to replace {{}} markers
   * @return {object} message replaced with data
  */
  function fillInTemplateFromObject_(template, data) {
    // We have two templates one for plain text and the html body
    // Stringifing the object means we can do a global replace
    let template_string = JSON.stringify(template);

    // Token replacement
    template_string = template_string.replace(/{{[^{}]+}}/g, key => {
      return escapeData_(data[key.replace(/[{}]+/g, "")] || "");
    });
    return  JSON.parse(template_string);
  }

  /**
   * Escape cell data to make JSON safe
   * @see https://stackoverflow.com/a/9204218/1027723
   * @param {string} str to escape JSON special characters from
   * @return {string} escaped string
  */
  function escapeData_(str) {
    return str
      .replace(/[\\]/g, '\\\\')
      .replace(/[\"]/g, '\\\"')
      .replace(/[\/]/g, '\\/')
      .replace(/[\b]/g, '\\b')
      .replace(/[\f]/g, '\\f')
      .replace(/[\n]/g, '\\n')
      .replace(/[\r]/g, '\\r')
      .replace(/[\t]/g, '\\t');
  };
}

修改

您可以根据需要随意修改邮件合并自动化设置。 以下是您可以对源代码进行的一些可选更改。

添加“密送”、“抄送”、“回复收件人”或“发件人”参数

示例代码包含一些其他参数,这些参数目前已注释掉,可让您控制发送电子邮件的帐号的名称、回复电子邮件地址以及密送和抄送电子邮件地址。

通过移除每个参数前的正斜杠 // 来激活您要添加的参数。

以下示例摘自 sendEmails 函数,该函数负责激活大多数电子邮件参数:

GmailApp.sendEmail(row[RECIPIENT_COL], msgObj.subject, msgObj.text, {
         htmlBody: msgObj.html,
         bcc: 'bcc@example.com',
         cc: 'cc@example.com',
         from: 'from.alias@example.com',
         name: 'name of the sender',
         replyTo: 'reply@example.com',
        // noReply: true, // if the email should be sent from a generic no-reply email address (not available to gmail.com users)

在上面的示例中,由于设置了 replyTo 参数,noReply 参数仍会被注释掉。

在电子邮件中加入 Unicode 字符

如果您想在电子邮件中添加表情符号等 Unicode 字符,则必须更新代码以使用邮件服务,而不是 Gmail 服务。

在示例代码中,更新以下代码行:

GmailApp.sendEmail(row[RECIPIENT_COL], msgObj.subject, msgObj.text, {

将该行替换为以下代码:

MailApp.sendEmail(row[RECIPIENT_COL], msgObj.subject, msgObj.text, {

贡献者

此示例由 Edinburgh Futures Institute 的学习设计和技术主管 Martin Hawksey、博主和 Google 开发者专家创建。

此示例由 Google 协助 Google 专家维护。

后续步骤