CSP gHM: Global Human Modification

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Earth Engine Snippet
csp fragmentation human-modification landcover landscape-gradient stressors tnc


The global Human Modification dataset (gHM) provides a cumulative measure of human modification of terrestrial lands globally at 1 square-kilometer resolution. The gHM values range from 0.0-1.0 and are calculated by estimating the proportion of a given location (pixel) that is modified, the estimated intensity of modification associated with a given type of human modification or "stressor". 5 major anthropogenic stressors circa 2016 were mapped using 13 individual datasets:

  • human settlement (population density, built-up areas)
  • agriculture (cropland, livestock)
  • transportation (major, minor, and two-track roads; railroads)
  • mining and energy production
  • electrical infrastructure (power lines, nighttime lights)

Please see the paper for additional methodological details. This asset was re-projected to WGS84 for use in Earth Engine.


1000 meters


Name Units Min Max Description
gHM km^2 0 1

global Human Modification

Terms of Use

Terms of Use

This dataset is available to use under the Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license.


  • Kennedy, C.M., J.R. Oakleaf, D.M. Theobald, S. Baurch-Murdo, and J. Kiesecker. 2019. Managing the middle: A shift in conservation priorities based on the global human modification gradient. Global Change Biology 00:1-16. doi:10.1111/gcb.14549

Explore in Earth Engine

var dataset = ee.ImageCollection('CSP/HM/GlobalHumanModification');

var visualization = {
  bands: ['gHM'],
  min: 0.0,
  max: 1.0,
  palette: ['0c0c0c', '071aff', 'ff0000', 'ffbd03', 'fbff05', 'fffdfd']


Map.addLayer(dataset, visualization, 'Human modification');