使用歷來資料

透過集合功能整理內容 你可以依據偏好儲存及分類內容。

History API 讓您的應用程式能在健身商店上執行大量作業:讀取、插入、更新及刪除歷來的健康和保健資料。使用 History API 執行下列操作:

  • 讀取透過其他應用程式插入或記錄的健康和保健資料。
  • 將批次資料匯入 Google Fit。
  • 請更新 Google Fit 中的資料。
  • 刪除應用程式先前儲存的歷來資料。

如要插入包含工作階段中繼資料的資料,請使用 Sessions API

讀取資料

以下各節說明如何讀取不同類型的匯總資料。

讀取詳細的匯總資料

如要讀取歷來資料,請建立 DataReadRequest 執行個體。

Kotlin

// Read the data that's been collected throughout the past week.
val endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
val startTime = endTime.minusWeeks(1)
Log.i(TAG, "Range Start: $startTime")
Log.i(TAG, "Range End: $endTime")

val readRequest =
    DataReadRequest.Builder()
        // The data request can specify multiple data types to return,
        // effectively combining multiple data queries into one call.
        // This example demonstrates aggregating only one data type.
        .aggregate(DataType.AGGREGATE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
        // Analogous to a "Group By" in SQL, defines how data should be
        // aggregated.
        // bucketByTime allows for a time span, whereas bucketBySession allows
        // bucketing by <a href="/fit/android/using-sessions">sessions</a>.
        .bucketByTime(1, TimeUnit.DAYS)
        .setTimeRange(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build()

Java

// Read the data that's been collected throughout the past week.
ZonedDateTime endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
ZonedDateTime startTime = endTime.minusWeeks(1);
Log.i(TAG, "Range Start: $startTime");
Log.i(TAG, "Range End: $endTime");

DataReadRequest readRequest = new DataReadRequest.Builder()
        // The data request can specify multiple data types to return,
        // effectively combining multiple data queries into one call.
        // This example demonstrates aggregating only one data type.
        .aggregate(DataType.AGGREGATE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
        // Analogous to a "Group By" in SQL, defines how data should be
        // aggregated.
        // bucketByTime allows for a time span, while bucketBySession allows
        // bucketing by sessions.
        .bucketByTime(1, TimeUnit.DAYS)
        .setTimeRange(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();

上述範例使用匯總資料點,其中每個 DataPoint 代表一天步行的步數。這個特定用途經過匯總的資料點有以下兩個優點:

  • 您的應用程式和健身商店交換了少量資料。
  • 您的應用程式不必手動匯總資料。

多種活動類型的匯總資料

您的應用程式可使用資料要求來擷取多種不同類型的資料。以下範例說明如何建立 DataReadRequest,以便取得在指定時間範圍內執行的各項活動所燃燒的卡路里。結果資料與 Google Fit 應用程式中回報的個別活動相符,且每個活動都有專屬的卡路里資料。

Kotlin

val readRequest = DataReadRequest.Builder()
    .aggregate(DataType.AGGREGATE_CALORIES_EXPENDED)
    .bucketByActivityType(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .setTimeRange(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .build()

Java

DataReadRequest readRequest = new DataReadRequest.Builder()
        .aggregate(DataType.AGGREGATE_CALORIES_EXPENDED)
        .bucketByActivityType(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .setTimeRange(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();

建立 DataReadRequest 執行個體後,請使用 HistoryClient.readData() 方法以非同步方式讀取歷來資料。

以下範例說明如何從 DataSet 取得 DataPoint 執行個體:

Kotlin

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
    .readData(readRequest)
    .addOnSuccessListener { response ->
        // The aggregate query puts datasets into buckets, so flatten into a
        // single list of datasets
        for (dataSet in response.buckets.flatMap { it.dataSets }) {
            dumpDataSet(dataSet)
        }
    }
    .addOnFailureListener { e ->
        Log.w(TAG,"There was an error reading data from Google Fit", e)
    }

fun dumpDataSet(dataSet: DataSet) {
    Log.i(TAG, "Data returned for Data type: ${dataSet.dataType.name}")
    for (dp in dataSet.dataPoints) {
        Log.i(TAG,"Data point:")
        Log.i(TAG,"\tType: ${dp.dataType.name}")
        Log.i(TAG,"\tStart: ${dp.getStartTimeString()}")
        Log.i(TAG,"\tEnd: ${dp.getEndTimeString()}")
        for (field in dp.dataType.fields) {
            Log.i(TAG,"\tField: ${field.name.toString()} Value: ${dp.getValue(field)}")
        }
    }
}

fun DataPoint.getStartTimeString() = Instant.ofEpochSecond(this.getStartTime(TimeUnit.SECONDS))
    .atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
    .toLocalDateTime().toString()

fun DataPoint.getEndTimeString() = Instant.ofEpochSecond(this.getEndTime(TimeUnit.SECONDS))
    .atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
    .toLocalDateTime().toString()

Java

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
        .readData(readRequest)
        .addOnSuccessListener (response -> {
            // The aggregate query puts datasets into buckets, so convert to a
            // single list of datasets
            for (Bucket bucket : response.getBuckets()) {
                for (DataSet dataSet : bucket.getDataSets()) {
                    dumpDataSet(dataSet);
                }
            }
        })
        .addOnFailureListener(e ->
            Log.w(TAG, "There was an error reading data from Google Fit", e));

}

private void dumpDataSet(DataSet dataSet) {
    Log.i(TAG, "Data returned for Data type: ${dataSet.dataType.name}");
    for (DataPoint dp : dataSet.getDataPoints()) {
        Log.i(TAG,"Data point:");
        Log.i(TAG,"\tType: ${dp.dataType.name}");
        Log.i(TAG,"\tStart: ${dp.getStartTimeString()}");
        Log.i(TAG,"\tEnd: ${dp.getEndTimeString()}");
        for (Field field : dp.getDataType().getFields()) {
            Log.i(TAG,"\tField: ${field.name.toString()} Value: ${dp.getValue(field)}");
        }
    }
}


private String getStartTimeString() {
    return Instant.ofEpochSecond(this.getStartTime(TimeUnit.SECONDS))
        .atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
        .toLocalDateTime().toString();
}

private String getEndTimeString() {
    return Instant.ofEpochSecond(this.getEndTime(TimeUnit.SECONDS))
            .atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
            .toLocalDateTime().toString();
}

讀取每日總資料

Google Fit 也可讓您輕鬆存取指定資料類型的每日總計。使用 HistoryClient.readDailyTotal() 方法擷取您在裝置目前時區當天午夜時指定的資料類型。例如,將 TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA 資料類型傳遞至此方法,以擷取每日總步數。您可以傳入具有即時每日總數的即時資料類型。如要進一步瞭解支援的資料類型,請參閱 DataType.getAggregateType

使用預設帳戶呼叫這個方法時,如果您未指定任何範圍,Google Fit 無需取得授權,即可透過 HistoryClient.readDailyTotal() 方法訂閱 TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA 更新。如果您需要在無法顯示權限面板的區域 (例如 Wear OS 錶面) 使用步驟資料,這項功能就能派上用場。

使用者偏好在 Google Fit 應用程式、其他應用程式和 Wear OS 錶面上看到一致的步數,因為這是穩定一致的可靠體驗。如要保持步數計數一致,請透過應用程式或錶面訂閱 Google Fit 平台中的步驟,然後更新 onExitAmbient() 中的計數。如要進一步瞭解如何在錶面中使用這項資料,請參閱錶面小工具Android WatchFace 範例應用程式

插入資料

如要插入歷來資料,請先建立 DataSet 執行個體:

Kotlin

// Declare that the data being inserted was collected during the past hour.
val endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
val startTime = endTime.minusHours(1)

// Create a data source
val dataSource = DataSource.Builder()
    .setAppPackageName(this)
    .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
    .setStreamName("$TAG - step count")
    .setType(DataSource.TYPE_RAW)
    .build()

// For each data point, specify a start time, end time, and the
// data value -- in this case, 950 new steps.
val stepCountDelta = 950
val dataPoint =
    DataPoint.builder(dataSource)
        .setField(Field.FIELD_STEPS, stepCountDelta)
        .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build()

val dataSet = DataSet.builder(dataSource)
    .add(dataPoint)
    .build()

Java

// Declare that the data being inserted was collected during the past hour.
ZonedDateTime endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
ZonedDateTime startTime = endTime.minusHours(1);

// Create a data source
DataSource dataSource = new DataSource.Builder()
        .setAppPackageName(this)
        .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
        .setStreamName("$TAG - step count")
        .setType(DataSource.TYPE_RAW)
        .build();

// For each data point, specify a start time, end time, and the
// data value -- in this case, 950 new steps.
int stepCountDelta = 950;
DataPoint dataPoint = DataPoint.builder(dataSource)
        .setField(Field.FIELD_STEPS, stepCountDelta)
        .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();

DataSet dataSet = DataSet.builder(dataSource)
        .add(dataPoint)
        .build();

建立 DataSet 執行個體後,請使用 HistoryClient.insertData 方法非同步新增這項歷來資料。

Kotlin

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
    .insertData(dataSet)
    .addOnSuccessListener {
        Log.i(TAG, "DataSet added successfully!")
    }
    .addOnFailureListener { e ->
        Log.w(TAG, "There was an error adding the DataSet", e)
    }

Java

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
        .insertData(dataSet)
        .addOnSuccessListener (unused ->
                Log.i(TAG, "DataSet added successfully!"))
        .addOnFailureListener(e ->
                Log.w(TAG, "There was an error adding the DataSet", e));
}

管理衝突的資料點

應用程式 DataSet 中的每個 DataPoint 都必須有 startTime,以及定義該 DataSet 中不重複間隔的 endTime,且 DataPoint 執行個體之間沒有重疊。

如果應用程式嘗試插入與現有 DataPoint 執行個體相衝突的新 DataPoint,系統會捨棄新的 DataPoint。如要插入可能與現有資料點重疊的新 DataPoint,請使用更新資料中所述的 HistoryClient.updateData 方法。

無法插入與任何現有資料點重疊的資料點

圖 1. insertData() 方法如何處理與現有 DataPoint 衝突的新資料點。

更新資料

Google Fit 可讓應用程式更新先前插入的歷史健康資料。如要為新的 DataSet 新增歷來資料,或是新增不會與現有資料點衝突的新 DataPoint 執行個體,請使用 HistoryApi.insertData 方法。

如要更新歷來資料,請使用 HistoryClient.updateData 方法。這個方法會刪除任何與使用此方法新增的 DataPoint 執行個體重疊的現有 DataPoint 執行個體。

如要更新歷來的健康和健身資料,請先建立 DataSet 執行個體:

Kotlin

// Declare that the historical data was collected during the past 50 minutes.
val endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
val startTime = endTime.minusMinutes(50)

// Create a data source
val dataSource  = DataSource.Builder()
    .setAppPackageName(this)
    .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
    .setStreamName("$TAG - step count")
    .setType(DataSource.TYPE_RAW)
    .build()

// Create a data set
// For each data point, specify a start time, end time, and the
// data value -- in this case, 1000 new steps.
val stepCountDelta = 1000

val dataPoint = DataPoint.builder(dataSource)
    .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .setField(Field.FIELD_STEPS, stepCountDelta)
    .build()

val dataSet = DataSet.builder(dataSource)
    .add(dataPoint)
    .build()

Java

// Declare that the historical data was collected during the past 50 minutes.
ZonedDateTime endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
ZonedDateTime startTime = endTime.minusMinutes(50);

// Create a data source
DataSource dataSource = new DataSource.Builder()
        .setAppPackageName(this)
        .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
        .setStreamName("$TAG - step count")
        .setType(DataSource.TYPE_RAW)
        .build();

// Create a data set
// For each data point, specify a start time, end time, and the
// data value -- in this case, 1000 new steps.
int stepCountDelta = 1000;

DataPoint dataPoint = DataPoint.builder(dataSource)
        .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .setField(Field.FIELD_STEPS, stepCountDelta)
        .build();

DataSet dataSet = DataSet.builder(dataSource)
        .add(dataPoint)
        .build();

接著,使用 DataUpdateRequest.Builder() 建立新的資料更新要求,並使用 HistoryClient.updateData 方法發出要求:

Kotlin

val request = DataUpdateRequest.Builder()
    .setDataSet(dataSet)
    .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .build()

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
    .updateData(request)
    .addOnSuccessListener {
        Log.i(TAG, "DataSet updated successfully!")
    }
    .addOnFailureListener { e ->
        Log.w(TAG, "There was an error updating the DataSet", e)
    }

Java

DataUpdateRequest request = new DataUpdateRequest.Builder()
        .setDataSet(dataSet)
        .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
        .updateData(request)
        .addOnSuccessListener(unused ->
                Log.i(TAG, "DataSet updated successfully!"))
        .addOnFailureListener(e ->
                Log.w(TAG, "There was an error updating the DataSet", e));

刪除資料

Google Fit 可讓應用程式刪除先前插入的歷史健康資料。

如要刪除歷來資料,請使用 HistoryClient.deleteData 方法:

Kotlin

// Declare that this code deletes step count information that was collected
// throughout the past day.
val endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault())
val startTime = endTime.minusDays(1)

// Create a delete request object, providing a data type and a time interval
val request = DataDeleteRequest.Builder()
    .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
    .addDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
    .build()

// Invoke the History API with the HistoryClient object and delete request, and
// then specify a callback that will check the result.
Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
    .deleteData(request)
    .addOnSuccessListener {
        Log.i(TAG, "Data deleted successfully!")
    }
    .addOnFailureListener { e ->
        Log.w(TAG, "There was an error with the deletion request", e)
    }

Java

// Declare that this code deletes step count information that was collected
// throughout the past day.
ZonedDateTime endTime = LocalDateTime.now().atZone(ZoneId.systemDefault());
ZonedDateTime startTime = endTime.minusDays(1);

// Create a delete request object, providing a data type and a time interval
DataDeleteRequest request = new DataDeleteRequest.Builder()
        .setTimeInterval(startTime.toEpochSecond(), endTime.toEpochSecond(), TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .addDataType(DataType.TYPE_STEP_COUNT_DELTA)
        .build();

// Invoke the History API with the HistoryClient object and delete request, and
// then specify a callback that will check the result.
Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
        .deleteData(request)
        .addOnSuccessListener (unused ->
                Log.i(TAG, "Data deleted successfully!"))
        .addOnFailureListener(e ->
        Log.w(TAG, "There was an error with the deletion request", e));

應用程式可以從特定工作階段中刪除資料,或刪除所有資料。詳情請參閱 DataDeleteRequest 的 API 參考資料。

註冊取得資料更新

應用程式可在註冊 SensorsClient 後,即時讀取原始感應器資料。

針對其他類型的頻率較低的手動資料類型,應用程式可在 Google Fit 資料庫插入這些測量結果時,註冊以接收更新。這類資料的類型包括高度、重量,以及舉重等訓練;詳情請參閱完整的支援資料類型清單。 如要註冊更新,請使用 HistoryClient.registerDataUpdateListener

下列程式碼片段可讓使用者在使用者為體重輸入新值時接收通知:

Kotlin

val intent = Intent(this, MyDataUpdateService::class.java)
val pendingIntent = PendingIntent.getService(this, 0, intent, PendingIntent.FLAG_UPDATE_CURRENT)

val request = DataUpdateListenerRegistrationRequest.Builder()
    .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_WEIGHT)
    .setPendingIntent(pendingIntent)
    .build()

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
    .registerDataUpdateListener(request)
    .addOnSuccessListener {
        Log.i(TAG, "DataUpdateListener registered")
    }

Java

Intent intent = new Intent(this, MyDataUpdateService.class);
PendingIntent pendingIntent = PendingIntent.getService(this, 0, intent, PendingIntent.FLAG_UPDATE_CURRENT)

DataUpdateListenerRegistrationRequest request = new DataUpdateListenerRegistrationRequest.Builder()
        .setDataType(DataType.TYPE_WEIGHT)
        .setPendingIntent(pendingIntent)
        .build();

Fitness.getHistoryClient(this, GoogleSignIn.getAccountForExtension(this, fitnessOptions))
        .registerDataUpdateListener(request)
        .addOnSuccessListener(unused ->
                Log.i(TAG, "DataUpdateListener registered"));

IntentService 可用於接收更新通知:

Kotlin

class MyDataUpdateService : IntentService("MyDataUpdateService") {
    override fun onHandleIntent(intent: Intent?) {
        val update = DataUpdateNotification.getDataUpdateNotification(intent)
        // Show the time interval over which the data points were collected.
        // To extract specific data values, in this case the user's weight,
        // use DataReadRequest.
        update?.apply {
            val start = getUpdateStartTime(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
            val end = getUpdateEndTime(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)

            Log.i(TAG, "Data Update start: $start end: $end DataType: ${dataType.name}")
        }
    }
}

Java

public class MyDataUpdateService extends IntentService {

    public MyDataUpdateService(String name) {
        super("MyDataUpdateService");
    }

    @Override
    protected void onHandleIntent(@Nullable Intent intent) {
        if (intent != null) {
            DataUpdateNotification update = DataUpdateNotification.getDataUpdateNotification(intent);

            // Show the time interval over which the data points
            // were collected.
            // To extract specific data values, in this case the user's weight,
            // use DataReadRequest.
            if (update != null) {
                long start = update.getUpdateStartTime(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
                long end = update.getUpdateEndTime(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
            }

            Log.i(TAG, "Data Update start: $start end: $end DataType: ${dataType.name}");
        }
    }
}

您必須在 AndroidManifest.xml 檔案中宣告 IntentService