创建事件

使用集合让一切井井有条 根据您的偏好保存内容并对其进行分类。

假设有一款应用可帮助用户找到最佳远足路线。通过将徒步旅行计划添加为日历活动,用户可获得许多帮助,让其自动整理内容。Google 日历帮助他们分享计划,并提醒他们制定计划,让他们可以毫无压力地做好准备。此外,得益于 Google 产品无缝集成,Google 即时 ping 他们出发的时间,Google 地图会准时将他们引导至会议地点。

本文介绍如何创建日历活动并将其添加到用户的日历中。

添加活动

如需创建事件,请调用至少提供以下参数的 events.insert() 方法:

  • calendarId 是日历标识符,可以是用于创建事件的日历的电子邮件地址,也可以是将使用已登录用户主日历的特殊关键字 'primary'。如果您不知道要使用的日历的电子邮件地址,则可以在 Google 日历网页界面的日历设置(“日历网址”部分)中进行检查,也可以在 calendarList.list() 调用的结果中查找。
  • event 是使用所有必要的详细信息(例如开始和结束时间)创建的事件,唯一的两个字段是 startend。如需了解完整的事件字段集,请参阅 event 参考文档

要成功创建事件,您需要执行以下操作:

  • 将您的 OAuth 范围设置为 https://www.googleapis.com/auth/calendar
  • 确保经过身份验证的用户对您提供的 calendarId 具有写入权限(例如,针对 calendarId 调用 calendarList.get() 并检查 accessRole)。

添加事件元数据

您可以在创建日历活动时视需要添加活动元数据。如果您选择在创建过程中不添加元数据,则可以使用 events.update() 更新许多字段;但是,某些字段(如事件 ID)只能在 events.insert() 操作期间设置。

位置
在位置字段中添加地址后,您可以启用“出发时间”或显示包含路线的地图等功能。
活动 ID
创建事件时,您可以选择生成符合我们格式要求的事件 ID。这样,您就可以使本地数据库中的实体与 Google 日历中的活动保持同步。如果在 Google 日历后端中成功执行某项操作后,操作失败,系统也会创建重复的活动。如果未提供事件 ID,服务器会为您生成事件 ID。如需了解详情,请参阅事件 ID 参考文档
参加者
您创建的活动会显示在您具有相同活动 ID 的所有参加者的主 Google 日历中。如果您在插入请求中将 sendNotifications 设置为 true,则参加者也会收到您活动的电子邮件通知。如需了解详情,请参阅由多个参加者参与的活动指南。

以下示例演示了如何创建事件和设置其元数据:

Go

// Refer to the Go quickstart on how to setup the environment:
// https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/go
// Change the scope to calendar.CalendarScope and delete any stored credentials.

event := &calendar.Event{
  Summary: "Google I/O 2015",
  Location: "800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103",
  Description: "A chance to hear more about Google's developer products.",
  Start: &calendar.EventDateTime{
    DateTime: "2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00",
    TimeZone: "America/Los_Angeles",
  },
  End: &calendar.EventDateTime{
    DateTime: "2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00",
    TimeZone: "America/Los_Angeles",
  },
  Recurrence: []string{"RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2"},
  Attendees: []*calendar.EventAttendee{
    &calendar.EventAttendee{Email:"lpage@example.com"},
    &calendar.EventAttendee{Email:"sbrin@example.com"},
  },
}

calendarId := "primary"
event, err = srv.Events.Insert(calendarId, event).Do()
if err != nil {
  log.Fatalf("Unable to create event. %v\n", err)
}
fmt.Printf("Event created: %s\n", event.HtmlLink)

Java

// Refer to the Java quickstart on how to setup the environment:
// https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/java
// Change the scope to CalendarScopes.CALENDAR and delete any stored
// credentials.

Event event = new Event()
    .setSummary("Google I/O 2015")
    .setLocation("800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103")
    .setDescription("A chance to hear more about Google's developer products.");

DateTime startDateTime = new DateTime("2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00");
EventDateTime start = new EventDateTime()
    .setDateTime(startDateTime)
    .setTimeZone("America/Los_Angeles");
event.setStart(start);

DateTime endDateTime = new DateTime("2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00");
EventDateTime end = new EventDateTime()
    .setDateTime(endDateTime)
    .setTimeZone("America/Los_Angeles");
event.setEnd(end);

String[] recurrence = new String[] {"RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2"};
event.setRecurrence(Arrays.asList(recurrence));

EventAttendee[] attendees = new EventAttendee[] {
    new EventAttendee().setEmail("lpage@example.com"),
    new EventAttendee().setEmail("sbrin@example.com"),
};
event.setAttendees(Arrays.asList(attendees));

EventReminder[] reminderOverrides = new EventReminder[] {
    new EventReminder().setMethod("email").setMinutes(24 * 60),
    new EventReminder().setMethod("popup").setMinutes(10),
};
Event.Reminders reminders = new Event.Reminders()
    .setUseDefault(false)
    .setOverrides(Arrays.asList(reminderOverrides));
event.setReminders(reminders);

String calendarId = "primary";
event = service.events().insert(calendarId, event).execute();
System.out.printf("Event created: %s\n", event.getHtmlLink());

JavaScript

// Refer to the JavaScript quickstart on how to setup the environment:
// https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/js
// Change the scope to 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/calendar' and delete any
// stored credentials.

const event = {
  'summary': 'Google I/O 2015',
  'location': '800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103',
  'description': 'A chance to hear more about Google\'s developer products.',
  'start': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles'
  },
  'end': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles'
  },
  'recurrence': [
    'RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2'
  ],
  'attendees': [
    {'email': 'lpage@example.com'},
    {'email': 'sbrin@example.com'}
  ],
  'reminders': {
    'useDefault': false,
    'overrides': [
      {'method': 'email', 'minutes': 24 * 60},
      {'method': 'popup', 'minutes': 10}
    ]
  }
};

const request = gapi.client.calendar.events.insert({
  'calendarId': 'primary',
  'resource': event
});

request.execute(function(event) {
  appendPre('Event created: ' + event.htmlLink);
});

Node.js

// Refer to the Node.js quickstart on how to setup the environment:
// https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/node
// Change the scope to 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/calendar' and delete any
// stored credentials.

const event = {
  'summary': 'Google I/O 2015',
  'location': '800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103',
  'description': 'A chance to hear more about Google\'s developer products.',
  'start': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles',
  },
  'end': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles',
  },
  'recurrence': [
    'RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2'
  ],
  'attendees': [
    {'email': 'lpage@example.com'},
    {'email': 'sbrin@example.com'},
  ],
  'reminders': {
    'useDefault': false,
    'overrides': [
      {'method': 'email', 'minutes': 24 * 60},
      {'method': 'popup', 'minutes': 10},
    ],
  },
};

calendar.events.insert({
  auth: auth,
  calendarId: 'primary',
  resource: event,
}, function(err, event) {
  if (err) {
    console.log('There was an error contacting the Calendar service: ' + err);
    return;
  }
  console.log('Event created: %s', event.htmlLink);
});

PHP

// Refer to the PHP quickstart on how to setup the environment:
// https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/php
// Change the scope to Google_Service_Calendar::CALENDAR and delete any stored
// credentials.

$event = new Google_Service_Calendar_Event(array(
  'summary' => 'Google I/O 2015',
  'location' => '800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103',
  'description' => 'A chance to hear more about Google\'s developer products.',
  'start' => array(
    'dateTime' => '2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone' => 'America/Los_Angeles',
  ),
  'end' => array(
    'dateTime' => '2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone' => 'America/Los_Angeles',
  ),
  'recurrence' => array(
    'RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2'
  ),
  'attendees' => array(
    array('email' => 'lpage@example.com'),
    array('email' => 'sbrin@example.com'),
  ),
  'reminders' => array(
    'useDefault' => FALSE,
    'overrides' => array(
      array('method' => 'email', 'minutes' => 24 * 60),
      array('method' => 'popup', 'minutes' => 10),
    ),
  ),
));

$calendarId = 'primary';
$event = $service->events->insert($calendarId, $event);
printf('Event created: %s\n', $event->htmlLink);

Python

# Refer to the Python quickstart on how to setup the environment:
# https://developers.google.com/calendar/quickstart/python
# Change the scope to 'https://www.googleapis.com/auth/calendar' and delete any
# stored credentials.

event = {
  'summary': 'Google I/O 2015',
  'location': '800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103',
  'description': 'A chance to hear more about Google\'s developer products.',
  'start': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles',
  },
  'end': {
    'dateTime': '2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00',
    'timeZone': 'America/Los_Angeles',
  },
  'recurrence': [
    'RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2'
  ],
  'attendees': [
    {'email': 'lpage@example.com'},
    {'email': 'sbrin@example.com'},
  ],
  'reminders': {
    'useDefault': False,
    'overrides': [
      {'method': 'email', 'minutes': 24 * 60},
      {'method': 'popup', 'minutes': 10},
    ],
  },
}

event = service.events().insert(calendarId='primary', body=event).execute()
print 'Event created: %s' % (event.get('htmlLink'))

Ruby

event = Google::Apis::CalendarV3::Event.new(
  summary: 'Google I/O 2015',
  location: '800 Howard St., San Francisco, CA 94103',
  description: 'A chance to hear more about Google\'s developer products.',
  start: Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventDateTime.new(
    date_time: '2015-05-28T09:00:00-07:00',
    time_zone: 'America/Los_Angeles'
  ),
  end: Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventDateTime.new(
    date_time: '2015-05-28T17:00:00-07:00',
    time_zone: 'America/Los_Angeles'
  ),
  recurrence: [
    'RRULE:FREQ=DAILY;COUNT=2'
  ],
  attendees: [
    Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventAttendee.new(
      email: 'lpage@example.com'
    ),
    Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventAttendee.new(
      email: 'sbrin@example.com'
    )
  ],
  reminders: Google::Apis::CalendarV3::Event::Reminders.new(
    use_default: false,
    overrides: [
      Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventReminder.new(
        reminder_method: 'email',
        minutes: 24 * 60
      ),
      Google::Apis::CalendarV3::EventReminder.new(
        reminder_method: 'popup',
        minutes: 10
      )
    ]
  )
)

result = client.insert_event('primary', event)
puts "Event created: #{result.html_link}"

为活动添加云端硬盘附件

您可以在日历活动中附加 Google 云端硬盘文件,例如 Google 文档中的会议记录、Google 表格中的预算、Google 幻灯片中的演示文稿或任何其他相关的 Google 云端硬盘文件。在使用 events.insert() 或更高版本创建事件时,您可以在更新过程中添加附件,例如使用 events.patch()

将 Google 云端硬盘文件附加到活动的两个部分是:

  1. 通常通过 files.get() 方法从 Drive API Files 资源获取文件 alternateLink 网址、titlemimeType
  2. 创建或更新事件,在请求正文中设置 attachments 字段,并将 supportsAttachments 参数设置为 true

以下代码示例演示了如何更新现有事件以添加附件:

Java

public static void addAttachment(Calendar calendarService, Drive driveService, String calendarId,
    String eventId, String fileId) throws IOException {
  File file = driveService.files().get(fileId).execute();
  Event event = calendarService.events().get(calendarId, eventId).execute();

  List<EventAttachment> attachments = event.getAttachments();
  if (attachments == null) {
    attachments = new ArrayList<EventAttachment>();
  }
  attachments.add(new EventAttachment()
      .setFileUrl(file.getAlternateLink())
      .setMimeType(file.getMimeType())
      .setTitle(file.getTitle()));

  Event changes = new Event()
      .setAttachments(attachments);
  calendarService.events().patch(calendarId, eventId, changes)
      .setSupportsAttachments(true)
      .execute();
}

PHP

function addAttachment($calendarService, $driveService, $calendarId, $eventId, $fileId) {
  $file = $driveService->files->get($fileId);
  $event = $calendarService->events->get($calendarId, $eventId);
  $attachments = $event->attachments;

  $attachments[] = array(
    'fileUrl' => $file->alternateLink,
    'mimeType' => $file->mimeType,
    'title' => $file->title
  );
  $changes = new Google_Service_Calendar_Event(array(
    'attachments' => $attachments
  ));

  $calendarService->events->patch($calendarId, $eventId, $changes, array(
    'supportsAttachments' => TRUE
  ));
}

Python

def add_attachment(calendarService, driveService, calendarId, eventId, fileId):
    file = driveService.files().get(fileId=fileId).execute()
    event = calendarService.events().get(calendarId=calendarId,
                                         eventId=eventId).execute()

    attachments = event.get('attachments', [])
    attachments.append({
        'fileUrl': file['alternateLink'],
        'mimeType': file['mimeType'],
        'title': file['title']
    })

    changes = {
        'attachments': attachments
    }
    calendarService.events().patch(calendarId=calendarId, eventId=eventId,
                                   body=changes,
                                   supportsAttachments=True).execute()

向活动中添加视频和电话会议

您可以将活动与 HangoutsGoogle Meet 会议相关联,以便用户通过电话或视频通话远程加入会议。

conferenceData 字段可用于读取、复制和清除现有的会议详细信息,还可以用于请求生成新会议。如需允许修改会议详细信息,请将 conferenceDataVersion 请求参数设置为 1

目前支持三种类型的 conferenceData,由 conferenceData.conferenceSolution.key.type 表示:

  1. 面向普通用户的环聊 (eventHangout)
  2. 面向用户的 Google Workspace 传统版 Hangouts (已弃用;eventNamedHangout
  3. Google Meet (hangoutsMeet)

您可以查看 calendarscalendarList 集合中的 conferenceProperties.allowedConferenceSolutionTypes,了解用户的任何给定日历支持的会议类型。您还可以通过检查 settings 集合中的 autoAddHangouts 设置,了解用户是否愿意为自己创建的所有活动创建 Hangouts。

除了 type 之外,conferenceSolution 还提供了可用于表示会议解决方案的 nameiconUri 字段,如下所示:

JavaScript

const solution = event.conferenceData.conferenceSolution;

const content = document.getElementById("content");
const text = document.createTextNode("Join " + solution.name);
const icon = document.createElement("img");
icon.src = solution.iconUri;

content.appendChild(icon);
content.appendChild(text);

您可以为 createRequest 提供新生成的 requestId(可以是随机的 string),为活动创建新会议。会议是异步创建的,但您可以随时查看请求的状态,让用户了解情况。

例如,如需为现有活动请求生成会议,请执行以下操作:

JavaScript

const eventPatch = {
  conferenceData: {
    createRequest: {requestId: "7qxalsvy0e"}
  }
};

gapi.client.calendar.events.patch({
  calendarId: "primary",
  eventId: "7cbh8rpc10lrc0ckih9tafss99",
  resource: eventPatch,
  sendNotifications: true,
  conferenceDataVersion: 1
}).execute(function(event) {
  console.log("Conference created for event: %s", event.htmlLink);
});

此调用的立即响应可能还不包含完全填充的 conferenceData;这由 status 字段中的状态代码 pending 表示。填充会议信息后,状态代码会更改为 successentryPoints 字段包含可供用户拨号加入会议的视频和手机 URI 的相关信息。

如果您希望安排具有相同会议详情的多个日历活动,可以将整个 conferenceData 从一个活动复制到另一个活动中。

在某些情况下,复制操作非常有用。例如,假设您正在开发一个招聘应用,该应用为候选人和面试官分别设置事件。您希望保护面试者的身份,但还需要确保所有参与者都加入同一场电话会议。