警告:此数据是根据Google用户数据政策提供的。请查看并遵守政策。否则可能会导致项目或帐户被暂停。

在您的服务器端验证 Google ID 令牌

谷歌返回一个ID令牌后,它是由一个HTTP提交的POST方法请求,用参数名credential ,以您的登录端点。

以下是 Python 语言中的示例,显示了验证和使用 ID 令牌的常用步骤:

  1. 验证跨站点请求伪造 (CSRF) 令牌。当您向登录端点提交凭据时,我们使用双重提交 cookie 模式来防止 CSRF 攻击。在每次提交之前,我们都会生成一个令牌。然后,将令牌放入 cookie 和帖子正文中,如以下代码示例所示:

    csrf_token_cookie = self.request.cookies.get('g_csrf_token')
    if not csrf_token_cookie:
        webapp2.abort(400, 'No CSRF token in Cookie.')
    csrf_token_body = self.request.get('g_csrf_token')
    if not csrf_token_body:
        webapp2.abort(400, 'No CSRF token in post body.')
    if csrf_token_cookie != csrf_token_body:
        webapp2.abort(400, 'Failed to verify double submit cookie.')
    
  2. 验证 ID 令牌。

    To verify that the token is valid, ensure that the following criteria are satisfied:

    • The ID token is properly signed by Google. Use Google's public keys (available in JWK or PEM format) to verify the token's signature. These keys are regularly rotated; examine the Cache-Control header in the response to determine when you should retrieve them again.
    • The value of aud in the ID token is equal to one of your app's client IDs. This check is necessary to prevent ID tokens issued to a malicious app being used to access data about the same user on your app's backend server.
    • The value of iss in the ID token is equal to accounts.google.com or https://accounts.google.com.
    • The expiry time (exp) of the ID token has not passed.
    • If you want to restrict access to only members of your G Suite domain, verify that the ID token has an hd claim that matches your G Suite domain name.

    Rather than writing your own code to perform these verification steps, we strongly recommend using a Google API client library for your platform, or a general-purpose JWT library. For development and debugging, you can call our tokeninfo validation endpoint.

    Using a Google API Client Library

    Using one of the Google API Client Libraries (e.g. Java, Node.js, PHP, Python) is the recommended way to validate Google ID tokens in a production environment.

    Java

    To validate an ID token in Java, use the GoogleIdTokenVerifier object. For example:

    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdToken;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdToken.Payload;
    import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleIdTokenVerifier;
    
    ...
    
    GoogleIdTokenVerifier verifier = new GoogleIdTokenVerifier.Builder(transport, jsonFactory)
        // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend:
        .setAudience(Collections.singletonList(CLIENT_ID))
        // Or, if multiple clients access the backend:
        //.setAudience(Arrays.asList(CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3))
        .build();
    
    // (Receive idTokenString by HTTPS POST)
    
    GoogleIdToken idToken = verifier.verify(idTokenString);
    if (idToken != null) {
      Payload payload = idToken.getPayload();
    
      // Print user identifier
      String userId = payload.getSubject();
      System.out.println("User ID: " + userId);
    
      // Get profile information from payload
      String email = payload.getEmail();
      boolean emailVerified = Boolean.valueOf(payload.getEmailVerified());
      String name = (String) payload.get("name");
      String pictureUrl = (String) payload.get("picture");
      String locale = (String) payload.get("locale");
      String familyName = (String) payload.get("family_name");
      String givenName = (String) payload.get("given_name");
    
      // Use or store profile information
      // ...
    
    } else {
      System.out.println("Invalid ID token.");
    }

    The GoogleIdTokenVerifier.verify() method verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the iss claim, and the exp claim.

    If you want to restrict access to only members of your G Suite domain, also verify the hd claim by checking the domain name returned by the Payload.getHostedDomain() method.

    Node.js

    To validate an ID token in Node.js, use the Google Auth Library for Node.js. Install the library:

    npm install google-auth-library --save
    Then, call the verifyIdToken() function. For example:

    const {OAuth2Client} = require('google-auth-library');
    const client = new OAuth2Client(CLIENT_ID);
    async function verify() {
      const ticket = await client.verifyIdToken({
          idToken: token,
          audience: CLIENT_ID,  // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend
          // Or, if multiple clients access the backend:
          //[CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3]
      });
      const payload = ticket.getPayload();
      const userid = payload['sub'];
      // If request specified a G Suite domain:
      // const domain = payload['hd'];
    }
    verify().catch(console.error);
    

    The verifyIdToken function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the exp claim, and the iss claim.

    If you want to restrict access to only members of your G Suite domain, also verify the hd claim matches your G Suite domain name.

    PHP

    To validate an ID token in PHP, use the Google API Client Library for PHP. Install the library (for example, using Composer):

    composer require google/apiclient
    Then, call the verifyIdToken() function. For example:

    require_once 'vendor/autoload.php';
    
    // Get $id_token via HTTPS POST.
    
    $client = new Google_Client(['client_id' => $CLIENT_ID]);  // Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend
    $payload = $client->verifyIdToken($id_token);
    if ($payload) {
      $userid = $payload['sub'];
      // If request specified a G Suite domain:
      //$domain = $payload['hd'];
    } else {
      // Invalid ID token
    }
    

    The verifyIdToken function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, the exp claim, and the iss claim.

    If you want to restrict access to only members of your G Suite domain, also verify the hd claim matches your G Suite domain name.

    Python

    To validate an ID token in Python, use the verify_oauth2_token function. For example:

    from google.oauth2 import id_token
    from google.auth.transport import requests
    
    # (Receive token by HTTPS POST)
    # ...
    
    try:
        # Specify the CLIENT_ID of the app that accesses the backend:
        idinfo = id_token.verify_oauth2_token(token, requests.Request(), CLIENT_ID)
    
        # Or, if multiple clients access the backend server:
        # idinfo = id_token.verify_oauth2_token(token, requests.Request())
        # if idinfo['aud'] not in [CLIENT_ID_1, CLIENT_ID_2, CLIENT_ID_3]:
        #     raise ValueError('Could not verify audience.')
    
        # If auth request is from a G Suite domain:
        # if idinfo['hd'] != GSUITE_DOMAIN_NAME:
        #     raise ValueError('Wrong hosted domain.')
    
        # ID token is valid. Get the user's Google Account ID from the decoded token.
        userid = idinfo['sub']
    except ValueError:
        # Invalid token
        pass
    

    The verify_oauth2_token function verifies the JWT signature, the aud claim, and the exp claim. You must also verify the hd claim (if applicable) by examining the object that verify_oauth2_token returns. If multiple clients access the backend server, also manually verify the aud claim.

  3. 根据 ID 令牌中电子邮件地址的关联帐户状态,您可以将用户重定向到不同的流,如下所示:

    • 未注册的电子邮件地址:您可以显示的注册用户界面(UI),它允许用户提供其他资料信息,如果需要的话。它还允许用户以静默方式创建新帐户和登录用户会话。

    • 存在的电子邮件地址旧版帐户:您可以显示一个网页,允许最终用户输入自己的密码,并与他们的谷歌凭证链接旧帐户。这确认用户有权访问现有帐户。

    • 一个returning联盟的用户:您可以默默登录用户。