概要

すべてのスマートホーム アクションには、ユーザーを認証するための仕組みを組み込む必要があります。

認証を使用すると、ユーザーの Google アカウントと認証システム内のユーザー アカウントを関連付けることができます。これにより、フルフィルメントでスマートホーム インテントを受け取ったときにユーザーを識別できます。Google スマートホームは、認証コード フローを使用した OAuth のみに対応します。

Design guidelines

This section describes the design requirements and recommendations for the App Flip account linking consent screen. After Google calls your app, your app displays the consent screen to the user.

Requirements

  1. You must communicate that the user’s account is being linked to Google, not to a specific Google product, such as Google Home or Google Assistant.

Recommendations

We recommend that you do the following:

  1. Display Google's Privacy Policy. Include a link to Google’s Privacy Policy on the consent screen.

  2. Data to be shared. Use clear and concise language to tell the user what data of theirs Google requires and why.

  3. Clear call-to-action. State a clear call-to-action on your consent screen, such as “Agree and link.” This is because users need to understand what data they're required to share with Google to link their accounts.

  4. Ability to cancel. Provide a way for users to go back or cancel, if they choose not to link.

  5. Ability to unlink. Offer a mechanism for users to unlink, such as a URL to their account settings on your platform. Alternatively, you can include a link to Google Account where users can manage their linked account.

  6. Ability to change user account. Suggest a method for users to switch their account(s). This is especially beneficial if users tend to have multiple accounts.

    • If a user must close the consent screen to switch accounts, send a recoverable error to Google so the user can sign in to the desired account with OAuth linking and the implicit flow.
  7. Include your logo. Display your company logo on the consent screen. Use your style guidelines to place your logo. If you wish to also display Google's logo, see Logos and trademarks.

This figure shows an example consent screen with call-outs to the
            individual requirements and recommendations to be followed when
            you design a user consent screen.
Figure 2. Account linking consent screen design guidelines.

OAuth によるアカウント リンクを実装する

スマートホーム アクションに OAuth によるアカウント リンクを実装するには、次の手順を行う必要があります。

  1. OAuth サーバー 2.0 を実装します。
  2. Actions Console でアカウント リンクを設定します。

OAuth 2.0 サーバーを実装する

ここでは、OAuth 2.0 サーバーを設定してスマートホーム アクションと連携させる方法について説明します。

An OAuth 2.0 server implementation of the authorization code flow consists of two endpoints, which your service makes available by HTTPS. The first endpoint is the authorization endpoint, which is responsible for finding or obtaining consent from users for data access. The authorization endpoint presents a sign-in UI to your users that aren't already signed in and records consent to the requested access. The second endpoint is the token exchange endpoint, which is used to obtain encrypted strings, called tokens, that authorize a user to access your service.

When a Google application needs to call one of your service's APIs, Google uses these endpoints together to get permission from your users to call these APIs on their behalf.

An OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow session initiated by Google has the following flow:

  1. Google opens your authorization endpoint in the user's browser. If the flow started on a voice-only device for an Action, Google transfers the execution to a phone.
  2. The user signs in, if not signed in already, and grants Google permission to access their data with your API, if they haven't already granted permission.
  3. Your service creates an authorization code and returns it to Google. To do so, redirect the user's browser back to Google with the authorization code attached to the request.
  4. Google sends the authorization code to your token exchange endpoint, which verifies the authenticity of the code and returns an access token and a refresh token. The access token is a short-lived token that your service accepts as credentials to access APIs. The refresh token is a long-lived token that Google can store and use to acquire new access tokens when they expire.
  5. After the user has completed the account linking flow, every subsequent request sent from Google contains an access token.

Handle authorization requests

When you need to perform account linking using the OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow, Google sends the user to your authorization endpoint with a request that includes the following parameters:

Authorization endpoint parameters
client_id The Google client ID you registered with Google.
redirect_uri The URL to which you send the response to this request.
state A bookkeeping value that is passed back to Google unchanged in the redirect URI.
scope Optional: A space-delimited set of scope strings that specify the data Google is requesting authorization for.
response_type The type of value to return in the response. For the OAuth 2.0 authorization code flow, the response type is always code.
user_locale The Google Account language setting in RFC5646 format, used to localize your content in the user's preferred language.

For example, if your authorization endpoint is available at https://myservice.example.com/auth, a request might look like the following:

GET https://myservice.example.com/auth?client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&redirect_uri=REDIRECT_URI&state=STATE_STRING&scope=REQUESTED_SCOPES&response_type=code&user_locale=LOCALE

For your authorization endpoint to handle sign-in requests, do the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id matches the Google client ID you registered with Google, and that the redirect_uri matches the redirect URL provided by Google for your service. These checks are important to prevent granting access to unintended or misconfigured client apps. If you support multiple OAuth 2.0 flows, also confirm that the response_type is code.
  2. Check if the user is signed in to your service. If the user isn't signed in, complete your service's sign-in or sign-up flow.
  3. Generate an authorization code for Google to use to access your API. The authorization code can be any string value, but it must uniquely represent the user, the client the token is for, and the code's expiration time, and it must not be guessable. You typically issue authorization codes that expire after approximately 10 minutes.
  4. Confirm that the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter has the following form:
      https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      https://oauth-redirect-sandbox.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID
      
  5. Redirect the user's browser to the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter. Include the authorization code you just generated and the original, unmodified state value when you redirect by appending the code and state parameters. The following is an example of the resulting URL:
    https://oauth-redirect.googleusercontent.com/r/YOUR_PROJECT_ID?code=AUTHORIZATION_CODE&state=STATE_STRING

Handle token exchange requests

Your service's token exchange endpoint is responsible for two kinds of token exchanges:

  • Exchange authorization codes for access tokens and refresh tokens
  • Exchange refresh tokens for access tokens

Token exchange requests include the following parameters:

Token exchange endpoint parameters
client_id A string that identifies the request origin as Google. This string must be registered within your system as Google's unique identifier.
client_secret A secret string that you registered with Google for your service.
grant_type The type of token being exchanged. It's either authorization_code or refresh_token.
code When grant_type=authorization_code, this parameter is the code Google received from either your sign-in or token exchange endpoint.
redirect_uri When grant_type=authorization_code, this parameter is the URL used in the initial authorization request.
refresh_token When grant_type=refresh_token, this parameter is the refresh token Google received from your token exchange endpoint.
Exchange authorization codes for access tokens and refresh tokens

After the user signs in and your authorization endpoint returns a short-lived authorization code to Google, Google sends a request to your token exchange endpoint to exchange the authorization code for an access token and a refresh token.

For these requests, the value of grant_type is authorization_code, and the value of code is the value of the authorization code you previously granted to Google. The following is an example of a request to exchange an authorization code for an access token and a refresh token:

POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: oauth2.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&client_secret=GOOGLE_CLIENT_SECRET&grant_type=authorization_code&code=AUTHORIZATION_CODE&redirect_uri=REDIRECT_URI

To exchange authorization codes for an access token and a refresh token, your token exchange endpoint responds to POST requests by executing the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id identifies the request origin as an authorized origin, and that the client_secret matches the expected value.
  2. Verify that the authorization code is valid and not expired, and that the client ID specified in the request matches the client ID associated with the authorization code.
  3. Confirm that the URL specified by the redirect_uri parameter is identical to the value used in the initial authorization request.
  4. If you can't verify all of the above criteria, return an HTTP 400 Bad Request error with {"error": "invalid_grant"} as the body.
  5. Otherwise, use the user ID from the authorization code to generate a refresh token and an access token. These tokens can be any string value, but they must uniquely represent the user and the client the token is for, and they must not be guessable. For access tokens, also record the expiration time of the token, which is typically an hour after you issue the token. Refresh tokens don't expire.
  6. Return the following JSON object in the body of the HTTPS response:
    {
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "ACCESS_TOKEN",
    "refresh_token": "REFRESH_TOKEN",
    "expires_in": SECONDS_TO_EXPIRATION
    }
    

Google stores the access token and the refresh token for the user and records the expiration of the access token. When the access token expires, Google uses the refresh token to get a new access token from your token exchange endpoint.

Exchange refresh tokens for access tokens

When an access token expires, Google sends a request to your token exchange endpoint to exchange a refresh token for a new access token.

For these requests, the value of grant_type is refresh_token, and the value of refresh_token is the value of the refresh token you previously granted to Google. The following is an example of a request to exchange a refresh token for an access token:

POST /token HTTP/1.1
Host: oauth2.example.com
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded

client_id=GOOGLE_CLIENT_ID&client_secret=GOOGLE_CLIENT_SECRET&grant_type=refresh_token&refresh_token=REFRESH_TOKEN

To exchange a refresh token for an access token, your token exchange endpoint responds to POST requests by executing the following steps:

  1. Verify that the client_id identifies the request origin as Google, and that the client_secret matches the expected value.
  2. Verify that the refresh token is valid, and that the client ID specified in the request matches the client ID associated with the refresh token.
  3. If you can't verify all of the above criteria, return an HTTP 400 Bad Request error with {"error": "invalid_grant"} as the body.
  4. Otherwise, use the user ID from the refresh token to generate an access token. These tokens can be any string value, but they must uniquely represent the user and the client the token is for, and they must not be guessable. For access tokens, also record the expiration time of the token, typically an hour after you issue the token.
  5. Return the following JSON object in the body of the HTTPS response:
    {
    "token_type": "Bearer",
    "access_token": "ACCESS_TOKEN",
    "expires_in": SECONDS_TO_EXPIRATION
    }

コンソールでアカウント リンクを設定する

Actions Console でアカウント リンクを設定する手順は次のとおりです。

  1. Actions Console に移動します。
  2. スマートホーム アクション プロジェクトを選択します。
  3. [Develop](開発)タブを選択し、左側のナビゲーションで [Account linking](アカウントのリンク)をクリックします。
  4. [OAuth Client information](OAuth クライアント情報)のすべてのフィールドを入力します。[Next](次へ)をクリックします。
  5. [Save](保存)をクリックします。

次のステップ(省略可)

OAuth 2.0 を実装すると、OAuth ベースのアプリ切り替えを設定できるようになります。アプリ切り替えを使うと、デベロッパーの認証システムに登録されているユーザーのアカウントを、そのユーザーの Google アカウントに簡単にリンクできます。アプリ切り替えの実装手順については、OAuth ベースのアプリ切り替えをご覧ください。